Referencing Guide

A guide for essay presentation and referencing is available here for Year 1 & Electives. 

Year 3: Critical Cultures Research Project Handbook is available here for final year undergraduate students

These guide presents guidelines on layout and  examples of how to cite and reference sources from the School of Visual Culture.

Referencing is a way of acknowledging every source used in research or in the completion of an assignment. The details you provide for a source are normally its author, title, date and place of publication, and the name of its publisher. You may have to provide additional details, depending on what form the source takes, such as a volume number or a web link. These individual references are then collected into what’s called a bibliography.

Citing is a way of briefly referencing a source within the text of your assignment, linking it to the more detailed reference in the bibliography. This is usually done when you paraphrase someone else’s ideas or directly quote them. Information, facts, and dates that are considered common knowledge are not required to be referenced e.g. Dublin is the capital city of Ireland. You should cite the surname of the author or editor, the year of publication and page number(s) in parenthesis in your text. If a name occurs naturally in your text, add the date and page number(s) only.


Examples from a Bibliography:

Books: Author (or editor), (year of publication in parenthesis), Title in Italics. Place of publication: publisher.

Articles in a journal: Author of article (surname first), (year of publication), ‘title of article’ (in inverted commas), title of journal in italics, volume number (part number), page numbers of article.




Online Journal Article in Database Journal article with one author: 

Author (Year) ‘Title’ Journal Title, volume (issue), page numbers Name of Collection [Online], Available At: URL (Accessed: date)

Princenthal, N. (2011) ‘Wake-up call’, Art in America, 99(9), pp. 124-131. Art Source [online]. Available at: 14c3d0b66b16%40sessionmgr4004&vid=0&hid=4107 (Accessed: 29 October 2015).




Title in Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher (if ascertainable). Available from: URL (Accessed: date)

Holland, M. (2004) Guide to Citing Internet Sources. Poole: Bournemouth University. Available at: html (Accessed: 4 November 2004)



Difference between Quoting and Paraphrasing

Quoting involves copying material word for word, using quotation marks:

“It takes a great deal of time and thought to install work carefully. This should not always be thrown away. Most art is fragile and some should be placed and never moved again” (Judd, 1987, p. 35).

Paraphrasing means putting information from sources in your own words. No quotation marks are used. You still need to add a citation in brackets afterwards:

He placed a great importance on the curation of work, remarking that this process should take a large amount of time and thought to be done correctly (Judd, 1987, p. 35).


For more information and examples, refer to Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide.